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Aurora deutsch

aurora deutsch

Übersetzungen für aurora im Italienisch» Deutsch-Wörterbuch von PONS Online :aurora, aurora australe, aurora boreale, aurora polare. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "Aurora" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Übersetzung für 'aurora' im kostenlosen Italienisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele weitere Deutsch-Übersetzungen.

Aurora Deutsch Video

Nanoleaf Aurora #02 - Montage [deutsch/german]

Arcs can fragment or break up into separate, at times rapidly changing, often rayed features that may fill the whole sky. These are the discrete auroras, which are at times bright enough to read a newspaper by at night.

The diffuse aurora, though, is a relatively featureless glow sometimes close to the limit of visibility. Diffuse auroras are often composed of patches whose brightness exhibits regular or near-regular pulsations.

The pulsation period can be typically many seconds, so is not always obvious. Often there black aurora i.

A typical auroral display consists of these forms appearing in the above order throughout the night. X-ray emissions, originating from the particles associated with auroras, have also been detected.

The charged particles discharge when particles from the Sun hit the inversion layer, creating the noise.

A full understanding of the physical processes which lead to different types of auroras is still incomplete, but the basic cause involves the interaction of the solar wind with the Earth's magnetosphere.

The varying intensity of the solar wind produces effects of different magnitudes, but includes one or more of the following physical scenarios.

The details of these phenomena are not fully understood. However it is clear that the prime source of auroral particles is the solar wind feeding the magnetosphere, the reservoir containing the radiation zones, and temporarily magnetically trapped, particles confined by the geomagnetic field, coupled with particle acceleration processes.

The immediate cause of the ionization and excitation of atmospheric constituents leading to auroral emissions was discovered in , when a pioneering rocket flight from Fort Churchill in Canada revealed a flux of electrons entering the atmosphere from above.

Electrons mainly responsible for diffuse and pulsating auroras have, in contrast, a smoothly falling energy distribution, and an angular pitch-angle distribution favouring directions perpendicular to the local magnetic field.

Pulsations were discovered to originate at or close to the equatorial crossing point of auroral zone magnetic field lines.

Both incoming electrons and protons may be involved. Excitation energy is lost within the atmosphere by the emission of a photon, or by collision with another atom or molecule:.

Oxygen is unusual in terms of its return to ground state: Collisions with other atoms or molecules absorb the excitation energy and prevent emission.

Because the highest atmosphere has a higher percentage of oxygen and is sparsely distributed such collisions are rare enough to allow time for oxygen to emit red.

Collisions become more frequent progressing down into the atmosphere, so that red emissions do not have time to happen, and eventually even green light emissions are prevented.

Green is the most common color. Then comes pink, a mixture of light green and red, followed by pure red, then yellow a mixture of red and green , and finally, pure blue.

Bright auroras are generally associated with Birkeland currents Schield et al. The ionosphere is an ohmic conductor , so some consider that such currents require a driving voltage, which an, as yet unspecified, dynamo mechanism can supply.

Electric field probes in orbit above the polar cap suggest voltages of the order of 40, volts, rising up to more than , volts during intense magnetic storms.

Ionospheric resistance has a complex nature, and leads to a secondary Hall current flow. By a strange twist of physics, the magnetic disturbance on the ground due to the main current almost cancels out, so most of the observed effect of auroras is due to a secondary current, the auroral electrojet.

An auroral electrojet index measured in nanotesla is regularly derived from ground data and serves as a general measure of auroral activity.

Kristian Birkeland [38] deduced that the currents flowed in the east—west directions along the auroral arc, and such currents, flowing from the dayside toward approximately midnight were later named "auroral electrojets" see also Birkeland currents.

The Earth is constantly immersed in the solar wind , a rarefied flow of hot plasma a gas of free electrons and positive ions emitted by the Sun in all directions, a result of the two-million-degree temperature of the Sun's outermost layer, the corona.

During magnetic storms , in particular, flows can be several times faster; the interplanetary magnetic field IMF may also be much stronger.

Joan Feynman deduced in the s that the long-term averages of solar wind speed correlated with geomagnetic activity. The solar wind and magnetosphere consist of plasma ionized gas , which conducts electricity.

It is well known since Michael Faraday 's work around that when an electrical conductor is placed within a magnetic field while relative motion occurs in a direction that the conductor cuts across or is cut by , rather than along , the lines of the magnetic field, an electric current is induced within the conductor.

The strength of the current depends on a the rate of relative motion, b the strength of the magnetic field, c the number of conductors ganged together and d the distance between the conductor and the magnetic field, while the direction of flow is dependent upon the direction of relative motion.

Dynamos make use of this basic process "the dynamo effect " , any and all conductors, solid or otherwise are so affected, including plasmas and other fluids.

The IMF originates on the Sun, linked to the sunspots , and its field lines lines of force are dragged out by the solar wind.

That alone would tend to line them up in the Sun-Earth direction, but the rotation of the Sun angles them at Earth by about 45 degrees forming a spiral in the ecliptic plane , known as the Parker spiral.

The field lines passing Earth are therefore usually linked to those near the western edge "limb" of the visible Sun at any time.

However, this process is hampered by the fact that plasmas conduct readily along magnetic field lines, but less readily perpendicular to them.

Energy is more effectively transferred by temporary magnetic connection between the field lines of the solar wind and those of the magnetosphere.

Unsurprisingly this process is known as magnetic reconnection. As already mentioned, it happens most readily when the interplanetary field is directed southward, in a similar direction to the geomagnetic field in the inner regions of both the north magnetic pole and south magnetic pole.

Auroras are more frequent and brighter during the intense phase of the solar cycle when coronal mass ejections increase the intensity of the solar wind.

Earth's magnetosphere is shaped by the impact of the solar wind on the Earth's magnetic field. The high latitude magnetosphere is filled with plasma as the solar wind passes the Earth.

The flow of plasma into the magnetosphere increases with additional turbulence, density and speed in the solar wind. This flow is favoured by a southward component of the IMF, which can then directly connect to the high latitude geomagnetic field lines.

In addition to moving perpendicular to the Earth's magnetic field, some magnetospheric plasma travels down along the Earth's magnetic field lines, gains additional energy and loses it to the atmosphere in the auroral zones.

The cusps of the magnetosphere, separating geomagnetic field lines that close through the Earth from those that close remotely allow a small amount of solar wind to directly reach the top of the atmosphere, producing an auroral glow.

On 26 February , THEMIS probes were able to determine, for the first time, the triggering event for the onset of magnetospheric substorms.

Geomagnetic storms that ignite auroras may occur more often during the months around the equinoxes. It is not well understood, but geomagnetic storms may vary with Earth's seasons.

Two factors to consider are the tilt of both the solar and Earth's axis to the ecliptic plane. As the Earth orbits throughout a year, it experiences an interplanetary magnetic field IMF from different latitudes of the Sun, which is tilted at 8 degrees.

Similarly, the 23 degree tilt of the Earth's axis about which the geomagnetic pole rotates with a diurnal variation, changes the daily average angle that the geomagnetic field presents to the incident IMF throughout a year.

These factors combined can lead to minor cyclical changes in the detailed way that the IMF links to the magnetosphere. In turn, this affects the average probability of opening a door through which energy from the solar wind can reach the Earth's inner magnetosphere and thereby enhance auroras.

The electrons responsible for the brightest forms of aurora are well accounted for by their acceleration in the dynamic electric fields of plasma turbulence encountered during precipitation from the magnetosphere into the auroral atmosphere.

In contrast, static electric fields are unable to transfer energy to the electrons due to their conservative nature. The increase in strength of magnetic field lines towards the Earth creates a 'magnetic mirror' that turns back many of the downward flowing electrons.

The bright forms of auroras are produced when downward acceleration not only increases the energy of precipitating electrons but also reduces their pitch angles angle between electron velocity and the local magnetic field vector.

This greatly increases the rate of deposition of energy into the atmosphere, and thereby the rates of ionisation, excitation and consequent emission of auroral light.

Acceleration also increases the electron current flowing between the atmosphere and magnetosphere. One early theory proposed for the acceleration of auroral electrons is based on an assumed static, or quasi-static, electric field creating a uni-directional potential drop.

Fundamentally, Poisson's equation indicates that there can be no configuration of charge resulting in a net potential drop. Inexplicably though, some authors [48] [49] still invoke quasi-static parallel electric fields as net accelerators of auroral electrons, citing interpretations of transient observations of fields and particles as supporting this theory as firm fact.

In another example, [50] there is little justification given for saying 'FAST observations demonstrate detailed quantitative agreement between the measured electric potentials and the ion beam energies Another theory is based on acceleration by Landau [51] resonance in the turbulent electric fields of the acceleration region.

This process is essentially the same as that employed in plasma fusion laboratories throughout the world, [52] and appears well able to account in principle for most — if not all — detailed properties of the electrons responsible for the brightest forms of auroras, above, below and within the acceleration region.

Other processes are also involved in the aurora, and much remains to be learned. Such low energies excite mainly the red line of oxygen, so that often such auroras are red.

On the other hand, positive ions also reach the ionosphere at such time, with energies of 20—30 keV, suggesting they might be an "overflow" along magnetic field lines of the copious "ring current" ions accelerated at such times, by processes different from the ones described above.

These ions are accelerated by plasma waves in directions mainly perpendicular to the field lines. They therefore start at their "mirror points" and can travel only upward.

As they do so, the "mirror effect" transforms their directions of motion, from perpendicular to the field line to a cone around it, which gradually narrows down, becoming increasingly parallel at large distances where the field is much weaker.

The auroras that resulted from the " great geomagnetic storm " on both 28 August and 2 September , however, are thought to be the most spectacular in recent recorded history.

In a paper to the Royal Society on 21 November , Balfour Stewart described both auroral events as documented by a self-recording magnetograph at the Kew Observatory and established the connection between the 2 September auroral storm and the Carrington -Hodgson flare event when he observed that, "It is not impossible to suppose that in this case our luminary was taken in the act.

It was reported by The New York Times that in Boston on Friday 2 September the aurora was "so brilliant that at about one o'clock ordinary print could be read by the light ".

Between and , Elias Loomis published a series of nine papers on the Great Auroral Exhibition of in the American Journal of Science where he collected worldwide reports of the auroral event.

That aurora is thought to have been produced by one of the most intense coronal mass ejections in history.

It is also notable for the fact that it is the first time where the phenomena of auroral activity and electricity were unambiguously linked.

Some telegraph lines, however, seem to have been of the appropriate length and orientation to produce a sufficient geomagnetically induced current from the electromagnetic field to allow for continued communication with the telegraph operator power supplies switched off.

The following conversation occurred between two operators of the American Telegraph Line between Boston and Portland, Maine , on the night of 2 September and reported in the Boston Traveler:.

Boston operator to Portland operator: It is now disconnected. How do you receive my writing? Suppose we work without batteries while we are affected by this trouble.

Shall I go ahead with business? The conversation was carried on for around two hours using no battery power at all and working solely with the current induced by the aurora, and it was said that this was the first time on record that more than a word or two was transmitted in such manner.

The effect of the aurorae on the electric telegraph is generally to increase or diminish the electric current generated in working the wires.

Sometimes it entirely neutralizes them, so that, in effect, no fluid is discoverable in them. The aurora borealis seems to be composed of a mass of electric matter, resembling in every respect, that generated by the electric galvanic battery.

The currents from it change coming on the wires, and then disappear: An aurora was described by the Greek explorer Pytheas in the 4th century BC.

He wrote about whether they were above or below the clouds , and recalled that under Tiberius , an aurora formed above the port city of Ostia that was so intense and red that a cohort of the army, stationed nearby for fire duty, galloped to the rescue.

In the traditions of Aboriginal Australians , the Aurora Australis is commonly associated with fire. For example, the Gunditjmara people of western Victoria called auroras puae buae 'ashes' , while the Gunai people of eastern Victoria perceived auroras as bushfires in the spirit world.

The Dieri people of South Australia say that an auroral display is kootchee , an evil spirit creating a large fire.

Similarly, the Ngarrindjeri people of South Australia refer to auroras seen over Kangaroo Island as the campfires of spirits in the 'Land of the Dead'.

Aboriginal people in southwest Queensland believe the auroras to be the fires of the Oola Pikka , ghostly spirits who spoke to the people through auroras.

Sacred law forbade anyone except male elders from watching or interpreting the messages of ancestors they believed were transmitted through an aurora.

Bulfinch's Mythology relates that in Norse mythology , the armour of the Valkyrior "sheds a strange flickering light, which flashes up over the northern skies, making what Men call the 'aurora borealis', or 'Northern Lights' ".

The chronicler has heard about this phenomenon from compatriots returning from Greenland , and he gives three possible explanations: In the s Benjamin Franklin theorized in his paper Aurora Borealis, Suppositions and Conjectures towards forming an Hypothesis for its Explanation that an aurora was caused by a concentration of electrical charge in the polar regions intensified by the snow and moisture in the air: May not then the great quantity of electricity brought into the polar regions by the clouds, which are condens'd there, and fall in snow, which electricity would enter the earth, but cannot penetrate the ice; may it not, I say as a bottle overcharged break thro' that low atmosphere and run along in the vacuum over the air towards the equator, diverging as the degrees of longitude enlarge, strongly visible where densest, and becoming less visible as it more diverges; till it finds a passage to the earth in more temperate climates, or is mingled with the upper air?

Observations of the rhythmic movement of compass needles due to the influence of an aurora were confirmed in the Swedish city of Uppsala by Anders Celsius and Olof Hiorter.

In , Hiorter was able to link large magnetic fluctuations with an aurora being observed overhead.

This evidence helped to support their theory that 'magnetic storms' are responsible for such compass fluctuations.

A variety of Native American myths surround the spectacle. The European explorer Samuel Hearne traveled with Chipewyan Dene in and recorded their views on the ed-thin 'caribou'.

According to Hearne, the Dene people saw the resemblance between an aurora and the sparks produced when caribou fur is stroked.

They believed that the lights were the spirits of their departed friends dancing in the sky, and when they shone brightly it meant that their deceased friends were very happy.

During the night after the Battle of Fredericksburg , an aurora was seen from the battlefield. The Confederate Army took this as a sign that God was on their side, as the lights were rarely seen so far south.

A mid 19th-century British source says auroras were a rare occurrence before the 18th-century. It says no appearance is recorded in the Transactions of the French Academy of Sciences between and And that one aurora recorded in Berlin Miscellany for was called a very rare event.

De Aurora had een bemanning van koppen inclusief 20 officieren. De kruiser wordt aangedreven door een stoommachine met steenkool als brandstof.

Tijdens de Russisch-Japanse Oorlog van , werd de Aurora toegevoegd aan de Pacifische Vloot en naar het oosten gestuurd. Hij nam deel aan de Slag bij Tsushima.

De Aurora met twee andere Russische kruisers wisten te ontsnappen naar Manilla. Hier werden de schepen door de Amerikaanse autoriteiten vastgehouden tot het einde van de oorlog.

In kwam de Aurora weer aan in de Baltische Zee en werd een opleidingsschip. In de Eerste Wereldoorlog werd de Aurora weer in actieve dienst genomen en deed hij mee aan acties in de Oostzee.

Aan het einde van keerde hij terug naar Petrograd voor reparaties. De kruiser speelde een actieve rol in zowel de Februarirevolutie als ook in de Oktoberrevolutie.

Na de revolutie werd hij ingezet in de Russische Burgeroorlog tegen de geallieerde troepen die het Witte Leger ondersteunden bij Archangelsk , ten noorden van Petrograd.

Vanaf diende hij weer als een opleidingsschip, om weer in gebruik genomen te worden in in het begin van de Tweede Wereldoorlog.

Na verschillende acties werd de Aurora afgemeerd bij Oranienbaum , en werd tot zinken gebracht door een Duits bombardement. In juli werd de Aurora gelicht en gerepareerd.

Na de oorlog werd de Aurora afgemeerd in Leningrad en diende hij weer als opleidingsschip voor de cadetten van de Nachimov Marineschool. In werd het schip als museum ingericht.

Uit Wikipedia, de vrije encyclopedie.

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At some times, they form "quiet arcs"; at others, they evolve and change constantly. These are called "active aurora".

The most distinctive and brightest are the curtain-like auroral arcs. Each curtain consists of many parallel rays, each lined up with the local direction of the magnetic field, consistent with auroras being shaped by Earth's magnetic field.

In situ particle measurements confirm that auroral electrons are guided by the geomagnetic field, and spiral around them while moving toward Earth.

The similarity of an auroral display to curtains is often enhanced by folds within the arcs. Arcs can fragment or break up into separate, at times rapidly changing, often rayed features that may fill the whole sky.

These are the discrete auroras, which are at times bright enough to read a newspaper by at night. The diffuse aurora, though, is a relatively featureless glow sometimes close to the limit of visibility.

Diffuse auroras are often composed of patches whose brightness exhibits regular or near-regular pulsations. The pulsation period can be typically many seconds, so is not always obvious.

Often there black aurora i. A typical auroral display consists of these forms appearing in the above order throughout the night.

X-ray emissions, originating from the particles associated with auroras, have also been detected. The charged particles discharge when particles from the Sun hit the inversion layer, creating the noise.

A full understanding of the physical processes which lead to different types of auroras is still incomplete, but the basic cause involves the interaction of the solar wind with the Earth's magnetosphere.

The varying intensity of the solar wind produces effects of different magnitudes, but includes one or more of the following physical scenarios.

The details of these phenomena are not fully understood. However it is clear that the prime source of auroral particles is the solar wind feeding the magnetosphere, the reservoir containing the radiation zones, and temporarily magnetically trapped, particles confined by the geomagnetic field, coupled with particle acceleration processes.

The immediate cause of the ionization and excitation of atmospheric constituents leading to auroral emissions was discovered in , when a pioneering rocket flight from Fort Churchill in Canada revealed a flux of electrons entering the atmosphere from above.

Electrons mainly responsible for diffuse and pulsating auroras have, in contrast, a smoothly falling energy distribution, and an angular pitch-angle distribution favouring directions perpendicular to the local magnetic field.

Pulsations were discovered to originate at or close to the equatorial crossing point of auroral zone magnetic field lines.

Both incoming electrons and protons may be involved. Excitation energy is lost within the atmosphere by the emission of a photon, or by collision with another atom or molecule:.

Oxygen is unusual in terms of its return to ground state: Collisions with other atoms or molecules absorb the excitation energy and prevent emission.

Because the highest atmosphere has a higher percentage of oxygen and is sparsely distributed such collisions are rare enough to allow time for oxygen to emit red.

Collisions become more frequent progressing down into the atmosphere, so that red emissions do not have time to happen, and eventually even green light emissions are prevented.

Green is the most common color. Then comes pink, a mixture of light green and red, followed by pure red, then yellow a mixture of red and green , and finally, pure blue.

Bright auroras are generally associated with Birkeland currents Schield et al. The ionosphere is an ohmic conductor , so some consider that such currents require a driving voltage, which an, as yet unspecified, dynamo mechanism can supply.

Electric field probes in orbit above the polar cap suggest voltages of the order of 40, volts, rising up to more than , volts during intense magnetic storms.

Ionospheric resistance has a complex nature, and leads to a secondary Hall current flow. By a strange twist of physics, the magnetic disturbance on the ground due to the main current almost cancels out, so most of the observed effect of auroras is due to a secondary current, the auroral electrojet.

An auroral electrojet index measured in nanotesla is regularly derived from ground data and serves as a general measure of auroral activity.

Kristian Birkeland [38] deduced that the currents flowed in the east—west directions along the auroral arc, and such currents, flowing from the dayside toward approximately midnight were later named "auroral electrojets" see also Birkeland currents.

The Earth is constantly immersed in the solar wind , a rarefied flow of hot plasma a gas of free electrons and positive ions emitted by the Sun in all directions, a result of the two-million-degree temperature of the Sun's outermost layer, the corona.

During magnetic storms , in particular, flows can be several times faster; the interplanetary magnetic field IMF may also be much stronger.

Joan Feynman deduced in the s that the long-term averages of solar wind speed correlated with geomagnetic activity. The solar wind and magnetosphere consist of plasma ionized gas , which conducts electricity.

It is well known since Michael Faraday 's work around that when an electrical conductor is placed within a magnetic field while relative motion occurs in a direction that the conductor cuts across or is cut by , rather than along , the lines of the magnetic field, an electric current is induced within the conductor.

The strength of the current depends on a the rate of relative motion, b the strength of the magnetic field, c the number of conductors ganged together and d the distance between the conductor and the magnetic field, while the direction of flow is dependent upon the direction of relative motion.

Dynamos make use of this basic process "the dynamo effect " , any and all conductors, solid or otherwise are so affected, including plasmas and other fluids.

The IMF originates on the Sun, linked to the sunspots , and its field lines lines of force are dragged out by the solar wind. That alone would tend to line them up in the Sun-Earth direction, but the rotation of the Sun angles them at Earth by about 45 degrees forming a spiral in the ecliptic plane , known as the Parker spiral.

The field lines passing Earth are therefore usually linked to those near the western edge "limb" of the visible Sun at any time.

However, this process is hampered by the fact that plasmas conduct readily along magnetic field lines, but less readily perpendicular to them.

Energy is more effectively transferred by temporary magnetic connection between the field lines of the solar wind and those of the magnetosphere.

Unsurprisingly this process is known as magnetic reconnection. As already mentioned, it happens most readily when the interplanetary field is directed southward, in a similar direction to the geomagnetic field in the inner regions of both the north magnetic pole and south magnetic pole.

Auroras are more frequent and brighter during the intense phase of the solar cycle when coronal mass ejections increase the intensity of the solar wind.

Earth's magnetosphere is shaped by the impact of the solar wind on the Earth's magnetic field. The high latitude magnetosphere is filled with plasma as the solar wind passes the Earth.

The flow of plasma into the magnetosphere increases with additional turbulence, density and speed in the solar wind.

This flow is favoured by a southward component of the IMF, which can then directly connect to the high latitude geomagnetic field lines.

In addition to moving perpendicular to the Earth's magnetic field, some magnetospheric plasma travels down along the Earth's magnetic field lines, gains additional energy and loses it to the atmosphere in the auroral zones.

The cusps of the magnetosphere, separating geomagnetic field lines that close through the Earth from those that close remotely allow a small amount of solar wind to directly reach the top of the atmosphere, producing an auroral glow.

On 26 February , THEMIS probes were able to determine, for the first time, the triggering event for the onset of magnetospheric substorms.

Geomagnetic storms that ignite auroras may occur more often during the months around the equinoxes. It is not well understood, but geomagnetic storms may vary with Earth's seasons.

Two factors to consider are the tilt of both the solar and Earth's axis to the ecliptic plane. As the Earth orbits throughout a year, it experiences an interplanetary magnetic field IMF from different latitudes of the Sun, which is tilted at 8 degrees.

Similarly, the 23 degree tilt of the Earth's axis about which the geomagnetic pole rotates with a diurnal variation, changes the daily average angle that the geomagnetic field presents to the incident IMF throughout a year.

These factors combined can lead to minor cyclical changes in the detailed way that the IMF links to the magnetosphere. In turn, this affects the average probability of opening a door through which energy from the solar wind can reach the Earth's inner magnetosphere and thereby enhance auroras.

The electrons responsible for the brightest forms of aurora are well accounted for by their acceleration in the dynamic electric fields of plasma turbulence encountered during precipitation from the magnetosphere into the auroral atmosphere.

In contrast, static electric fields are unable to transfer energy to the electrons due to their conservative nature. The increase in strength of magnetic field lines towards the Earth creates a 'magnetic mirror' that turns back many of the downward flowing electrons.

The bright forms of auroras are produced when downward acceleration not only increases the energy of precipitating electrons but also reduces their pitch angles angle between electron velocity and the local magnetic field vector.

This greatly increases the rate of deposition of energy into the atmosphere, and thereby the rates of ionisation, excitation and consequent emission of auroral light.

Acceleration also increases the electron current flowing between the atmosphere and magnetosphere. One early theory proposed for the acceleration of auroral electrons is based on an assumed static, or quasi-static, electric field creating a uni-directional potential drop.

Fundamentally, Poisson's equation indicates that there can be no configuration of charge resulting in a net potential drop.

Inexplicably though, some authors [48] [49] still invoke quasi-static parallel electric fields as net accelerators of auroral electrons, citing interpretations of transient observations of fields and particles as supporting this theory as firm fact.

In another example, [50] there is little justification given for saying 'FAST observations demonstrate detailed quantitative agreement between the measured electric potentials and the ion beam energies Another theory is based on acceleration by Landau [51] resonance in the turbulent electric fields of the acceleration region.

This process is essentially the same as that employed in plasma fusion laboratories throughout the world, [52] and appears well able to account in principle for most — if not all — detailed properties of the electrons responsible for the brightest forms of auroras, above, below and within the acceleration region.

Other processes are also involved in the aurora, and much remains to be learned. Such low energies excite mainly the red line of oxygen, so that often such auroras are red.

De kruiser speelde een actieve rol in zowel de Februarirevolutie als ook in de Oktoberrevolutie. Na de revolutie werd hij ingezet in de Russische Burgeroorlog tegen de geallieerde troepen die het Witte Leger ondersteunden bij Archangelsk , ten noorden van Petrograd.

Vanaf diende hij weer als een opleidingsschip, om weer in gebruik genomen te worden in in het begin van de Tweede Wereldoorlog. Na verschillende acties werd de Aurora afgemeerd bij Oranienbaum , en werd tot zinken gebracht door een Duits bombardement.

In juli werd de Aurora gelicht en gerepareerd. Na de oorlog werd de Aurora afgemeerd in Leningrad en diende hij weer als opleidingsschip voor de cadetten van de Nachimov Marineschool.

In werd het schip als museum ingericht. Uit Wikipedia, de vrije encyclopedie. Doorverwezen vanaf Aurora pantserkruiser. Zie de categorie Aurora van Wikimedia Commons voor mediabestanden over dit onderwerp.

Overgenomen van " https: She appears in the season finale where she, a revived Phillip and Mulan find Neal washed off the coast in the Enchanted Forest.

They take him back to the palace and tend to his injuries. Upon awakening, she asks who he is, to which the man responds with his name, Neal.

Hastily, Aurora rushes over to bring water to him while Neal wonders where this is. She says him he is in their kingdom, and further questioning prompts Prince Phillip to tell Neal they are in the Enchanted Forest.

Shocked, Neal murmurs he is back, which causes Aurora to think he's a native of this land, but Mulan points out his clothes are foreign and similar to Emma and Mary Margaret's.

At the mention of Emma's name, Neal realizes they are acquainted with her as well, and tries to explain he needs to save Emma from harm.

In attempting to move from the beer, Neal struggles to sit up as his wound is not yet completely healed, but despite that, he is set on finding out if Emma and Henry are alright.

Aurora queries if Neal is Henry's father, and goes on to fill him in on how she once met Henry in the Netherworld. She mentions having harnessed the power to walk the dream world and find others like her, and it's possible to find Henry.

Neal asks if she can find Emma to let her know he is alive. Assuming a laying spot on the beer, Aurora attempts to find with Emma or Henry in the dream world.

A moment later, Aurora awakens to notify Neal she was unable to make contact. However, Neal recalls his father always had plans and could have left something behind if he ever came back to the Enchanted Forest.

He has hopes of finding such an item and using it to get to Emma and Henry by traveling to his father's castle. Prince Phillip raises the question of who his father is, and Neal admits it's Rumplestiltskin.

While Aurora and Prince Phillip stay behind, Mulan and Neal head off towards the castle, wishing the two luck in their endeavors. When Mulan is offered to join Robin Hood 's band, she stopped by Aurora's to share the great news, but before Aurora shares a great news of her own: After the two are happy to hear both of their respective revelation, Mulan and Aurora exchange happy tearful hugs and say goodbye.

Sometime later, everyone who was sent to Storybrooke by the Dark Curse return to the Enchanted Forest and Aurora and Phillip greets them.

However, after welcoming everyone back the two of them realize that they must tell Zelena, the Wicked Witch of the West that Storybrooke's residents have returned.

If they do not give her this information, she will take their child. Angry, the Wicked Witch transforms them into flying monkeys.

After the Wicked Witch was defeated Leroy revealed that Aurora and Phillip became human again and Aurora is later seen in Storybrooke at the event where Snow White and Prince Charming name their new child.

Some time later, Aurora gives birth to a son who is also given the name Phillip. She goes to parenting classes with Snow White and Cinderella, it is also revealed that she is still trying to understand the ways of the modern world.

Aurora appears in the feature film as Maleficent's secret rival and good friend, portrayed by actress Elle Fanning while Angelina Jolie 's daughter Vivienne Jolie-Pitt portrays her as a 5-year old.

Out of all other little girls, Vivienne was the only child that wasn't afraid of her own mother in costume since the other kids in casting would run away in fear of Angelina's appearance.

As an infant, she was out of vengeance cursed by Maleficent that before the sun sets on her sixteenth birthday she would prick her finger on the spindle of a Spinning Wheel and fall into an eternal slumber like death.

To keep her safe she was taken into hiding. Over the next sixteen years, she comes across Maleficent many times as she grows up and comes to believe the wicked fairy is her fairy godmother.

Aurora was nicknamed "Beastie" by Maleficent in their first interaction. She is secretly cared for by Maleficent and Diaval since the Pixies are incapable of doing so.

Even as a toddler she has no fear of being near Maleficent at all, especially when she hugs her and lets her pick her up.

When Aurora is fifteen, Maleficent brings her to the Moors and two eventually develop a mother-daughter relationship but remains unaware that the fairy she claims to be her Fairy Godmother is the one who had cursed her as an infant.

She wishes to stay in the Moors with Maleficent but after learning the truth of her past and Maleficent's identity from the Pixies, she angrily returns to her father.

Unfortunately, she was not supposed to return until the day after her sixteenth birthday, and as the sun begins to set, the curse calls to her and follows a whispering voice to the dungeons where all the spinning wheels in the kingdom were burnt.

She approaches one spinning wheel that repairs itself and she slowly reaches out for the spindle. She pricks her finger and falls into her eternal deathlike slumber.

Maleficent brings Phillip to her, the prince she met in the forest, hoping his brief meeting with her will be enough to break the spell but unfortunately it does not.

So sad and ashamed of what her hatred has brought upon her dearest friend, she gives her a motherly goodbye kiss on the forehead and just before she can walk away a miracle happens: Aurora wakes up happy to see her Fairy Godmother.

Maleficent's close and intense motherly love for Aurora was enough to break the curse. As they try to flee the castle, Maleficent gets captured by Stefan's guards, Aurora tries to save her but she is overpowered and told to run.

She finds her way to a room where she finds Maleficent's fairy wings and they're still alive. She manages to free them and they emerge with Maleficent, giving back her ability to fly once again.

She allowed Maleficent to kill her deranged father once and for all. In the last scene, Aurora is crowned Queen of both the human and fairy kingdoms and is reunited with Prince Phillip who both smile at each other as her fairy godmother Maleficent leaves to enjoy flying once again with Diaval.

The narrator of the film concludes the tale by revealing that she is, in fact, an elderly Aurora retelling the whole story. In this story, Aurora plays more of a heroic role.

As the plot follows, Maleficent returns from the deathly Underworld and seeks revenge on Aurora and Phillip in midst of the royal couple's first wedding anniversary.

The evil fairy does so by cursing the kingdom, turning everyone, with the exception of Aurora herself, into stone.

To save her subjects and loved ones, Aurora travels to the Forbidden Mountains and offers her life in exchange for the kingdom.

Maleficent agrees, placing Aurora in a sleep-like death, and freeing the citizens of the kingdom, as promised. After his revival, Phillip rushes off to rescue Aurora, battling and eventually defeating Maleficent in the process.

With true love's kiss, Aurora's eternal sleeping spell is broken once again, and peace and order are restored. In the manga series Kilala Princess , Aurora is celebrating her 17th birthday when princesses Kilala and Sylphy and prince Rei enter her world to find a magical gem.

Kilala is mistaken for a maid due to her appearance and is forced to work. Aurora finds Kilala on the balcony and comforts her. She has been told that Kilala is in love with Rei, and tells her of her own story with Prince Phillip and what kept her love strong.

The witch, Maleficent , emerges to curse Aurora with slumber once more, but Kilala shields the princess from harm, sacrificing herself in the process.

Rei kisses Kilala and, through the kiss of true love, breaks the spell and defeats Maleficent permanently. Aurora then gives Kilala a rose quartz, depicting the importance of being faithful to her dreams if she wants them to come true.

Aurora appears in this book trapped in the Dreamscape right after she pricked her finger on the Spinning Wheel and had fallen to Maleficent 's curse and it is there she encouters Lucinda, Ruby, and Martha , who are trapped alongside her.

It is revealed that Aurora is really Maleficent's biological daughter. Birth by Sleep , Aurora's backstory is more or less the same as it was in the film.

By the time Terra arrives at the Enchanted Dominion, Aurora has already been placed in a deep slumber under the influence of the curse laid by Maleficent.

When Terra reaches the tower and meets Maleficent, she uses the darkness in his heart to temporarily take control of his body as well his mind and forces him to take Aurora's heart.

Her heart was kept in Maleficent's castle until Ventus comes to retrieve it with the three good fairies. Although her heart returned, the curse is not broken.

Prince Phillip eventually escapes with Aqua 's aid and reaches the tower where he kisses Aurora and breaks the spell.

During the ending credits, she and Prince Phillip are seen dancing in the audience chamber of the castle, just like at the end of the movie.

In Kingdom Hearts , she is known to be a Princess of Heart and is among the seven to be captured by Riku and Maleficent , most likely by Maleficent herself after recovering from her defeat by Aqua and Phillip and gaining the support of the Heartless.

She plays a small but important role in the story. She is placed in another deep sleep with the other princesses until Sora , Donald Duck , and Goofy rescue them and Aurora tell them about Ansem.

She and the other princesses help open the keyhole and along with the other princesses, she also gives Sora the power of fire.

Later, she tells Sora further information about Maleficent. Afterward, she returns to her home as it is restored following the sealing of the Door To Darkness and defeat of Ansem.

Aurora appears in the game as a meet-and-greet character outside the Bibbidi-Bobbidi-Boutique in Fantasyland. She assigns a few tasks to the player, including helping her prepare a party for the Good Fairies and searching for bird songs.

Princess Aurora is a meetable character at Disney parks around the world. She is usually at Fantasy Faire in Disneyland Park or in stage shows that include a princess scene.

Aurora also appears on the princess themed float in Mickey's Soundsational Parade as well as in Jubilation! In Epcot , She can often be found in the France Pavilion.

Aurora also makes meet-and-greet appearances aboard the Disney Magic. Princess Aurora appears during the Princess Melody, but not in every showing.

Aurora also reappears riding Steamboat Willie at the top with other Disney Princesses and many other Disney characters. Aurora appeared dancing with Cinderella , Snow White , and their princes.

Aurora assists Cinderella and Snow White in making Minnie dreams come true as being a princess. She reappeared at the end and celebrate with other Disney characters the defeat of Maleficent and her minions Captain Hook and Mr.

Aurora did not receive many changes in her late redesign. Her bangs no longer sport the distinctive curl in the front and are now combed and curled more to the side like a typical hair parting.

Her tiara is no longer as pointy, and the rubies that used to be studded in it have been replaced with pink rose quartz. The white shoulders of her ball gown are now more refined and streamlined, and no longer as sharp and pointed-looking.

The entire ball gown itself is now decorated with swirly designs of climbing flowers and vines. This reworking of Aurora's look is carried over to the Disney Parks.

She also has a more sparkly and glittery redesign for her other blue ball gown. In her early redesigns, she had a long sash beneath her hips instead of the triangular cutouts, but in the current redesign, the cutouts remained in her ball gown.

The Magic Lives On!

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